LaMaGa: Hofstadter's butterfly

Subject: Quantum mechanics.

Explanation: In simple terms, spectrum of an electron in solid with a magnetic field. The horizontal axis is the alpha parameter, which the number of magnetic flux quanta going through a unit cell. The vertical axis is the energy. The white dots denote the allowed values of the energy for a given magnetic field.

Bibliography: Douglas R. Hofstadter's original paper "D.R. Hofstadter, Phys. Rev. B14, 2239 (1976)"

Software: Self-made, you may ask for a copy to the web-admin.

Printable copy: PostScript file available here.

All images are rendered using free software, and released under the GPL

Last Update: 21 May 2005
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